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Plasmids are circular small molecules of DNA widely used in molecular biology and biotechnology for genetic engineering. This protocol provides information for a rapid and efficient plasmid injection into HeLa cells using the FluidFM technology.
FluidFM nanosyringe, 600nm aperture, 2N/m nominal stiffness
TE buffer (10mM Tris-HCl pH7.4, 0.25mM EDTA)
HeLa cells growing in a TC treated 6-well plate
pEGFP-C1 (4731bp) and pmCherryC1-TRIM21 (6083bp) plasmids
Lucifer Yellow (2mg/ml fresh solution in HEPES or TE buffer) (optional)
Make sure that all solutions (buffers and cell media) have been filtered through a 0.2µm pore before starting the experiment.
The surface of the FluidFM nanosyringe needs to be hydrophobic to avoid cell adhesion. Therefore, a thin layer of a silicone based solution (Sigmacote) is added to the probe, following the coating protocol. The probe can be coated and stored up to one week before its use.
Plasmids can be prepared using a Maxiprep kit. Manipulation must be endotoxin-free and plasmid must be eluted in filtered TE pH7.4 buffer. Plasmids that have been precipitated in ethanol and resuspended in TE buffer are not recommended, since any trace of residual alcohol might affect cell physiology and viability.
Prepare a solution containing 2.5E10 copies per microliter of each plasmid.
Adding a fluorescent compound such as Lucifer Yellow to the solution helps to monitor the injection process.
Dispense 1µl of the plasmid solution into the probe reservoir according to the probe preparation protocol. In order to avoid the drying of the solution into the probe, it is strongly recommended to load the probe on the FluidFM BIO Series system as fast as possible after this step.
In order to facilitate the injection procedure, it is recommended to seed the cells at least 6 hours before the experiment.
Using medium without phenol red helps to obtain a better visualization of the injection of fluorescent compounds. Therefore, follow the following steps:
Just before the injection procedure, remove the cell culture medium.
Add 2 ml of CO2 independent growth medium supplemented with 2nM of L-Glutamine, 10% FBS and 1% penicillin/streptomycin.
Prepare the system
Turn on the FluidFM BIO Series, the microscope and the computer.
Initialize the software.
Load the probe into the probe holder in the right port of the system.
Load the TC-treated 6-well plate containing the cells in the left port of the system.
Run the Preparation workflow.
Once the system is ready, run the Injection workflow.
Selection of the cells
Use one of the proposed tools to target the nucleus or the cytoplasm of the desired cell. When performing cytoplasm injection, it is strongly recommended to select a point close to the nucleus. Otherwise, the probe can not enter properly into the cell and the product would be released in the cell culture medium.
Set parameters for injection
When using HeLa cells on a TC-treated well plate and following precisely this protocol, the parameters used should be the following:
Parameters need to be adjusted when using other cell lines or culture dishes.